Perovskite Solar Cells
One of the hottest topics in materials science in the past few years has been hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites, which have risen to stardom due to their remarkable properties in optoelectronic applications. In particular, they have revolutionized the field of photovoltaics, with spectacular achievements in power conversion efficiencies that rival silicon and other established thin-film technologies (i.e. CdTe and CIGS). With more than 2000 publications on the subject in just a few years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have evolved and matured quickly. First, the efficiencies are as high as is necessary for commercialization. Then, the fundamental properties of the material have been properly established. The main debate of the field on hysteresis and ferroelectricity has been debunked. Coupled with remarkable stability and rapid progress in upscaling (i.e. modules and processing), this review will provide an overview of the latest developments in this rapidly evolving field. PSCs composed of organic-metal-halide materials have made impressive progress in just a few years with maximum power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) evolving from 3.8% in 2009 to a certified 22.1% in 2016. In the past year, huge progress has been shown for different device configurations, including the classic mesoporous-infiltrated n–i–p junction and mesoporous-free “planar” configurations. The latter are low temperature-processed SnO2-based configurations, which can now yield efficiencies close to the high temperature-processed mesoporous analogues. Monolithic tandem c-Si/perovskite solar cells have shown tremendous progress, achieving high efficiencies above 25% with a potential of above 30% with further optimization. Additionally, industry friendly deposition techniques have been developed recently, bridging the gap between academic research and its industrial partners.
We are developing new concepts and designs of perovskite solar cells.
1. Integration of resonant nanoparticles into interfaces of perovskite solar cells
Laboratory of Hybrid Nanophotonics and Optoelectronics is exploring the underlying fundamental scientific basis and developing new materials for highly sensitive organic and hybrid organo-inorganic perovskite photodetectors with integrated nanophotonic light trapping structures, as well as thin-film bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. Applied research is being carried out at the interface of nanophotonics and device engineering, including theoretical modeling and design of optically active nanostructures that tune the optoelectronic properties of buffer and photo-absorbing layers of thin-film photodetectors and solar cells (including optical responsivity, absorption wavelength range, transport properties). Light-trapping nanophotonic structures (nanoparticles Si and Au/SiO2) act as optical traps and buffer additives inside the structure of photodetectors and solar cells, and they are expected to reduce optical loss within the photoactive layer, improve sensitivity, and increase the device efficiency.
The work is carried out in collaboration with the group on theoretical calculations. According to the calculations, a model of nanoparticles and a method for their implementation are built to achieve the maximum effect in increasing the output characteristics of solar cells and photodetectors. After that, the concentration and methods of implantation the synthesized colloidal solutions are optimized, then the devices are measured and their stability over time is investigated.
1. Furasova, A., Calabró, E., Lamanna, E., Tiguntseva, E., Ushakova, E., Ubyivovk, E., ... & Di Carlo, A. (2018). Resonant silicon nanoparticles for enhanced light harvesting in halide perovskite solar cells. Advanced Optical Materials, 6(21), 1800576.
2. Furasova, A., Voroshilov, P., Lamanna, E., Mozharov, A., Tsypkin, A., Mukhin, I., ... & Makarov, S. (2020). Engineering the Charge Transport Properties of Resonant Silicon Nanoparticles in Perovskite Solar Cells. Energy Technology, 8(4), 1900877.
3. Mikhail A. Masharin, Alexander S. Berestennikov, Daniele Barettin, Pavel M. Voroshilov, Konstantin S. Ladutenko, Aldo Di Carlo, and Sergey V. Makarov, “Giant Enhancement of Radiative Recombination in Perovskite Light-emitting Diodes with Plasmonic Core-shell Nanoparticles”, Nanomaterials, 2020 (submitted)
2. Upscaling perovskite solar cells
In the laboratory of hybrid nanophotonics and optoelectronics, research is being carried out in the field of improving the interfaces of perovskite solar cells not only through transport layers, but also a photoactive perovskite layer, for example, by adding quasi-2D perovskites. It is assumed that such additives will improve the morphology of the resulting perovskite layers and prevent the formation of “pine-holes”, which in turn will facilitate the generation of a larger number of excitons in the bulk of the perovskite solar cell.
In parallel to these works, methods are being developed for upscaling perovskite solar cells to a centimeter scale; for this task, we have two installations that allow the deposition of films on substrates up to 10 cm2 - slot-die coater and doctor-blade coater.
3. Encapsulation of perovskite solar cells
Perovskite solar cells have achieved energy conversion efficiency (PCE) comparable to established technologies, but the problem of their stability under real operating conditions, including exposure to moisture, heat and light, has not been completely resolved yet. Therefore, encapsulation is an integral part in the design and testing of perovskite solar cells, which can reduce the degradation of the device interface, as well as improve its durability.
Currently, our laboratory has developed several methods for encapsulating perovskite photovoltaic devices using capton tape, epoxy resin (hardened by ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength range from 365 nm to 405 nm) and cover glasses. The figure below shows photographs of encapsulated samples.
4. Our perovkite solar cells can operate also in LED regime at certain conditions
1. Gets, D., Saranin, D., Ishteev, A., Haroldson, R., Danilovskiy, E., Makarov, S., & Zakhidov, A. (2019). Light-emitting perovskite solar cell with segregation enhanced self doping. Applied Surface Science, 476, 486-492.
2. Verkhogliadov, G. A., Masharin, M. A., Gets, D. S., Danilovskiy, E. Y., Makarov, S. M., & Zakhidov, A. A. (2020). Effect of Solvent Annealing on Optical Properties of Perovskite Dualfunctional Devices. Solid State Phenomena (Vol. 312, pp. 185-191).